Available at https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi?Dockey=P100L386.txt. [USDA] United States Department of Agriculture. However, confined space work, such as grain bin entry, that is regulated by 29 CFR 1910.272, is not subject to the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.146, as long as the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.272 protect workers against all the hazards within the grain bins (OSHA Letter of Interpretation: Questions regarding the PRCS standard, 29 CFR 1910.146, and the Grain Handling standard, 29 CFR 1910.272. 2009. Available at www.mass.gov/eopss/docs/dfs/emergencyresponse/special-ops/ethanol-spill-impacts-and-response-7-11.pdf. Corn is currently the primary feedstock for most ethanol production. Eliminate or isolate all potential hazards prior to entry. Pretreatment, in the context of cellulosic-based ethanol manufacturing, refers to physical, chemical, or biological treatment applied to the biomass for the purposes of disrupting the lignin structure and exposing the cellulose for subsequent enzyme hydrolysis. The CSHO will walk through the facility to conduct a physical assessment and interview workers. 2009b. The Corn Refining Process. 02NY012. 2009. Water or steam washes might also be preferred in some instances. Available at www.usda.gov/. Figure II.14. In addition to ethanol, these facilities process and handle many other hazardous chemicals (III.F), but usually in much lower quantities. Brazil, the world's second-largest producer of ethanol, used sugarcane to produce 6.9 billion gallons of ethanol in 2010 (RFA, 2011a). Many workers at ethanol manufacturing facilities, especially maintenance personnel, use a variety of hand and portable power tools, which present physical hazards. Intermediates are a mixture of fermentable 6-carbon sugars (e.g., glucose), fermentable 5-carbon sugars (e.g., xylose), and residual lignin. Facilities typically keep enough stored corn on hand so that production could continue for several days in the event that scheduled deliveries are interrupted. Examples of some, but not all, of the engineering controls that ethanol manufacturing facilities could use are listed below. 2008. Although the United States grows small amounts of sugarcane and sugar beets, these crops are used primarily in the sugar industry; because sugarcane is a tropical plant, in the United States it is grown primarily in Florida, Texas, Louisiana, and Hawaii. Dosman. Outlines safety requirements for containers and components for ammonia handling and storage. Ethanol Fermentation Tanks. Sanders, R.E. Permissible exposure limit for ammonia is 50 ppm (35 mg/m3 TWA). By heating the column, liquids in the beer evaporate and ethanol-containing vapors are collected at the top of the column, while the stillage is drained from the bottom. Controls include training, hot work permits, housekeeping, proper design and installation of equipment, preventive equipment maintenance and inspections, emergency escape plans, and various engulfment prevention measures. Available at https://ethanolrfa.org/. Besides mixed alcohols, catalytic conversion of syngas can also be used to generate certain hydrocarbon mixtures, including diesel and gasoline (Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis). Ethanol synthesis leads to ethanol and co-products. The screeners are sized so that corn kernels can pass through some sheets, thereby removing oversized materials, but do not pass through others, thereby removing undersized materials. Ethanol Distillation Columns. Chemical Process During Biochemical Conversion of Cellulosic Feedstocks. Available at www.nclabor.com/osha/etta/indguide/ig43.pdf. Bulk Plants, Terminals, and Transfers, Appendix C Fire Hydrant Location and Distribution, NFPA 10 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, NFPA 11 Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam, NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, NFPA 14 Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems, NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, NFPA 61 Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities, NFPA 69 Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems, NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 77 Recommended Practice on Static Electricity, NFPA 472 Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents, NFPA 704 Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for, NFPA 1620 Recommended Practice for Pre-Incident Planning, NFPA 1670 Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents. There were no witnesses to his activities. Available at https://ethanolrfa.org/producers/safety/. $99.00 $ 99. Most corn wet-milling facilities in the United States will have some of the following operations to process co-products: The principal hazards in ethanol manufacturing are associated with processing dry feedstocks and handling ethanol; therefore, ethanol manufacturing facilities combine some of the attributes of grain handling facilities and chemical processing facilities. The purpose of this step is to separate the oil-rich germ from the rest of the steeped kernels, which is essentially a mixture of fiber, starch, and gluten. More co-products are typically created because of the corn kernel fractionation. Chang, J.I., and C-C. Lin. Available at www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib073105.html. When we (not blind) struggled in class to cane a chair with 8 pieces of cane going into one hole and an intricate weave, the teacher reminded us that blind people can learn to do this. 2011. The kernels fall through the grates and typically onto a conveying system which takes the kernels to a storage area. A Guide to Emergency Action Planning. The exact combination of co-products will vary from one manufacturing facility to the next and each facility will tailor the range of co-products it produces to current market demands. EPA-420-F-07-017. Available at www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_218300.html. 2006. Corn kernels may also be passed through a destoner. Installing automatic suppression systems that detect pressure rises in equipment and inject inert materials to suppress an explosion (. The processing steps (Figure II.7.1, Figure II.8.1) are shown in the chronological order observed at these facilities. The operation began with a young Moses working alongside … Ethanol manufacturing facilities, like many chemical manufacturing and processing operations, have numerous additional potentially hazardous situations. Manage the occupancy of buildings in close proximity to process areas. The product gas exits the reactor where it is cooled so that the condensed alcohols can be separated from unconverted syngas. When I wanted to buy a real broom … Nottingham, UK: Nottingham University Press. Canada: Thomson Brooks/Cole. Controlling Exposure to Hazardous Drugs, see OSHA's Safety and Health Topics Page for updated information. - Reduce incoming feedstock size and moisture content to meet the requirements of the gasification system, - Thermally decompose processed feedstock in high-temperature fixed bed or fluidized bed reactors, Tar reformation, cleanup, and conditioning, - Use multiple separation processes to remove impurities (e.g., tar, ammonia) from syngas and to condition syngas for further processing, - Use a metallic catalyst to convert syngas constituents to mixed alcohols in a fixed bed reactor, - Separate condensed alcohols from unconverted syngas and recycle syngas to a reactor, - Use multiple separation processes to separate methanol, ethanol, and higher alcohols, - Feed syngas to bioreactor to form ethanol using certain anaerobic bacteria strains, - Remove dilute ethanol stream through a membrane, - Distill and dehydrate the liquid process stream to purify the ethanol and separate co-products, Figure II.25. Available at www.hrt.msu.edu/energy/pdf/heating%20value%20of%20common%20fuels.pdf. Handbook of Fire and Explosion Protection Engineering Principles for Oil, Gas, Chemical, and Related Facilities. Maintaining equipment in an optimal working condition. This OSHA Technical Manual (OTM) chapter was prepared to educate readers about some of the safety and health hazards associated with the current and anticipated future production technologies for ethanol manufacturing facilities in the United States. Implementing a maintenance program that includes regular inspections of at least the mechanical and safety control equipment (. 2007a. Understanding safe tank entry requirements and procedures leads to proper preparation and verified hazard control, such as tank isolation, ventilation and proper use of PPE. The hydrolyzate from saccharification is directed to fermentation tanks. The remaining germ residue, or germ meal, is used as a component of animal feed. The resultant slurry is pumped through hydrocyclones to extract the germ from the mixture of fiber, starch, and gluten (EPA, 1995). This figure shows a process building map example, with marks placed designating live fire and Class B standpipe locations. As of January 2014, five of the seven plants under construction or expansion will use cellulosic or waste feedstocks (RFA, 2014). The final step in production is denaturing the ethanol. [NFPA] National Fire Protection Association. Broomcorn was planted in spring, grew rapidly, and was harvested when the plant was still pea green. API STD 653, Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Reconstruction - Fourth Edition, 2009; Incorporating Addendum 1: August 2010, Addendum 2: January 2012, Addendum 3: November 2013. At facilities that manufacture ethanol for fuels, the ethanol is denatured with conventional gasoline before storing it in tanks. Sources of information on past incidents in the ethanol industry include: OSHA IMIS accident investigation summaries, the media, and trade association publications (e.g., Jessen, 2011a). There are significant hazards associated with operating the molecular sieve beds, especially in regenerating them, which is generally done using hot nitrogen or another inert gas. Corn Brooms. Fires may also be caused by dead spots in fluidized bed dryers, which usually occur when material stops flowing, accumulates, or fluidization is lost in some or all of the beds, resulting in heat buildup and combustion. Because every corn broom is hand-made, each one will vary slightly in size and shape, however, the craftsmanship and quality remains unmistakable. Spill containment mechanism is not visible. It looks beautiful hanging on the wall. 7-73; May. Products can be a mixture of ethanol, other alcohols, and many other minor constituents. This chart shows cellulosic biomass being changed into feedstock handling, which goes to pretreatment, and then to neutralization. 2002a. Implementing proper lockout/tagout procedures before starting work (, Chapter 13 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations, Section 2705 Use, Dispensing, and Handling, Section 3405 Dispensing, Mixing, and Handling, Section 3406 Special Operations. Implementing a safe work entry permit program to thoroughly assess all hazards in cases where workers must enter into vessels or work beneath grain receiving pits. A catalytic tar reformer can also convert ammonia to nitrogen and hydrogen gas. Steeped corn kernels are sent through degerminating mills which tear the kernels apart to free the germ and about half of the starch and gluten. Prohibiting open flames, sparks or smoking, near flammable liquids. Specifically, ethanol formed by fermentation of starch-based or cellulosic-based feedstock accounts for nearly all of today's ethanol market, with only minimal amounts currently manufactured via thermochemical production. Sources of ignition must be eliminated in distillation areas, for example, by prohibiting smoking, implementing bonding and grounding mechanisms, utilizing electrical equipment and wiring that is classified for the hazardous location, and implementing a hot work program. Associated Press. To remove the remaining water, the ethanol-water azeotrope is typically passed through a molecular sieve to adsorb water from the mixture. Wastewater from the stillage and other processes undergoes aerobic and anaerobic waste treatment processes. PSM Covered Chemical Facilities National Emphasis Program CPL 03-00-021. [OSHA] Occupational Safety & Health Administration. Occupational & Environmental Medicine 61(6):551-553. Locate personnel away from process areas consistent with safe and effective operations. Worker Entry into Grain Storage Bins. Training all employees on combustible dust hazards and controls. The starch is washed 8 to 14 times in water, re-diluted, and passed through hydrocyclones to completely remove any remaining gluten. Safe tank entry requires an evaluation of hazards (both physical and atmospheric) at the job site. Process means any activity involving a highly hazardous chemical including any use, storage, manufacturing, handling, or on-site movement of such chemicals, or any combination of these activities. circuit breaker, disconnect switch) of the equipment was not properly locked out and tagged out before starting work. Postal Service 491110 Postal stations operated on a contract basis 492110 Air courier services (except establishments operating under a universal service obligation) 492110 Courier services (i.e., intercity network) (except establishments operating under a universal service obligation) 492110 Express delivery services (except establishments operating under a universal service obligation) 492110 Local letter and parcel delivery services as part of intercity courier network 492210 Alcoholic beverage delivery service 492210 Bicycle courier 492210 Delivery service (except as part of intercity courier network, U.S. In constructing new plants and equipment, the employer must ensure that the fabricated equipment is suitable for the process that it will be used in (29 CFR 1910.119(j)(6)(i)). The types and quantities of fermentation inhibitors produced are highly variable based on the type of pretreatment selected. As in the production of corn ethanol, saccharification involves breaking down a polysaccharide into simple, fermentable sugars. The fungus (or other organism) is supplied with a portion of the neutralized hydrolyzate, and it consumes those sugars to produce cellulase. OSHA requires employers in the general industry to administer a continuing, effective hearing conservation program, as described in paragraphs (c) through (o) of 29 CFR 1910.95, whenever employee noise exposures equal or exceed an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) sound level of 85 decibels measured on the A scale (dBA) or, equivalently, a dose of fifty percent (29 CFR 1910.95(c)). A significant safety issue associated with grain storage and large storage piles is the possibility of workers becoming engulfed and entrapped by the materials (Inspection of Grain Handling Facilities, 29 CFR 1910.272, CPL-02-01-004, OSHA 1996). Conducting regular inspections of motor vehicles and implementing an effective maintenance program. Gasifipedia. The composition of the mixed alcohol product varies depending on the type of feedstock and catalyst used (see an estimated product distribution in Figure II.27). The Original Soft Sweep Magnetic Action Brooms - 12 Pack of Brooms (4 Pink, 4 Purple, 4 Yellow) - Soft Bristle Broom - Made in The USA. The factory produces standard items as wells a brushes manufactured to exacting … FACE Report No. Installing automatic fire detection and suppression systems at critical points within production areas, tank storage areas, and ethanol load-out areas. Figure II.27. Injury and illness records including OSHA-300 and OSHA-300A. 2002. The incoming stream of corn kernels, as received, is typically passed through a screener or scalper (Figure II.10. Assure the blind or blank is appropriately sized (includes thickness) to withstand pump pressure. Alpha-amylase helps break down the corn starch into shorter carbohydrate chains known as dextrins. Following tar reformation, the gas is cooled and passed through a wet scrubber system to remove particulates and any residual tar or ammonia. There are two main processes for producing ethanol from corn: dry-milling (II.B.1) and wet-milling (II.B.2). Process areas with the possibility of flammable vapors require Class 1 electrical equipment, while process areas with the possibility of combustible dusts require Class 2 electrical equipment. 2008. Nearly 50 firefighters responded to the explosion, which was so powerful it raised a semi-truck hauling 80,000 pounds of grain. Available at www.osha.gov/SLTC/grainhandling/index.html. The fiber is then physically separated from the gluten and starch using a series of fixed, concave screens. Also reported are exposure-related symptoms in the eyes (e.g., itchiness) and nose (e.g., blockage, sneezing), as well as allergic reactions in those who are more sensitized to its effects. Requires a workplace assessment to determine whether spaces are permit-required. The concentrated steeping liquor is then added to the fibrous milling residue produced by fiber separation. A continuing, effective hearing conservation program is also required in the construction industry when sound levels exceed the values shown in Table D-2 of 29 CFR 1926.52. Sources of hazardous energy include mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, and pneumatic equipment, which present a danger to workers if the energy isolating source (e.g., circuit breaker, disconnect switch) is not properly shut down and if appropriate measures are not taken to prevent the equipment from starting up unexpectedly while employees are still working (IV.U; 29 CFR 1910.147). The ornamental tops can also be used in dried arrangements. The Economic Feasibility of Ethanol Production from Sugar in the United States. For example, if the moisture content of the inlet stream unexpectedly drops, the material inside the dryer can become excessively dry producing conditions that can lead to smoldering and fires inside the dryer itself. Regulates asbestos exposure in all construction work including but not limited to construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, or renovation of structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain asbestos. Hydrants must be provided in accordance with accepted good practice. Most corn dry-milling facilities have at least two types of distillation columns (Figure II.13): beer columns and rectifying columns. [OSHA] Occupational Safety & Health Administration. By dry weight, shelled corn's nutritional makeup is dominated by starch (72 percent, dry weight). The most effective use of glucoamylase occurs when the solution pH is between 4.0 and 5.5, which is considerably lower than the pH in the liquefaction process. Although sometimes used interchangeably, these terms do have subtle differences in meaning (Anku, 1993; Purdue University, 2011): Two teenage workers suffocated and died and another young worker was seriously injured when they were engulfed in corn in a storage bin at a grain elevator facility. 7th Edition. FREE Shipping. When you purchase one, you support, not only the Remington Lions Club, but the blind and visually impaired who … The communication equipment in the emergency control center should include a network to receive and transmit information by telephone, radio or other means. Postal Service) 492210 Messenger service 492210 Restaurant meals delivery services (i.e., independent delivery services) 493110 Bonded warehousing, general merchandise 493110 General warehousing and storage 493110 Private warehousing and storage, general merchandise 493110 Public warehousing and storage (except self-storage), general merchandise 493110 Warehousing (including foreign trade zones), general merchandise 493110 Warehousing and storage, general merchandise 493120 Bonded warehousing, refrigerated 493120 Cold storage locker services 493120 Cold storage warehousing 493120 Farm product warehousing and storage, refrigerated 493120 Fur storage warehousing for the trade 493120 Private warehousing and storage, refrigerated 493120 Public warehousing and storage, refrigerated 493120 Refrigerated warehousing 493120 Warehousing, refrigerated 493130 Bonded warehousing, farm products (except refrigerated) 493130 Farm product warehousing and storage (except refrigerated) 493130 Grain elevators, storage only 493130 Private warehousing and storage, farm products (except refrigerated) 493130 Public warehousing and storage, farm products (except refrigerated) 493130 Warehousing, farm products (except refrigerated) 493190 Automobile dead storage 493190 Bonded warehousing (except farm products, general merchandise, refrigerated) 493190 Bulk petroleum storage 493190 Document storage and warehousing 493190 Lumber storage terminals 493190 Private warehousing and storage (except farm products, general merchandise, refrigerated) 493190 Public warehousing and storage (except farm products, general merchandise, refrigerated, self-storage) 493190 Warehousing (except farm products, general merchandise, refrigerated) 493190 Whiskey warehousing 511110 Newspaper branch offices 511110 Newspaper publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511110 Newspaper publishers and printing combined 511110 Publishers, newspaper (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511110 Publishers, newspaper, combined with printing 511120 Advertising periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Advertising periodical publishers and printing combined 511120 Agricultural magazine and periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Agricultural magazine and periodical publishers and printing combined 511120 Comic book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Comic book publishers and printing combined (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Financial magazine and periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Financial magazine and periodical publishers and printing combined 511120 Juvenile magazine and periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Juvenile magazine and periodical publishers and printing combined 511120 Magazine publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Magazine publishers and printing combined 511120 Medical journal and periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Medical journal and periodical publishers and printing combined 511120 Newsletter publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Newsletter publishers and printing combined (except Internet) 511120 Periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Periodical publishers and printing combined 511120 Professional magazine and periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Professional magazine and periodical publishers and printing combined 511120 Publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing), magazine 511120 Publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing), periodical 511120 Publishers, magazine, combined with printing 511120 Publishers, periodical, combined with printing 511120 Radio guide publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Radio guide publishers and printing combined 511120 Radio schedule publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Radio schedule publishers and printing combined 511120 Religious magazine and periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Religious magazine and periodical publishers and printing combined 511120 Scholarly journal publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Scholarly journal publishers and printing combined 511120 Scholastic magazine and periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Scholastic magazine and periodical publishers and printing combined 511120 Scientific journal and periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Scientific journal and periodical publishers and printing combined 511120 Technical magazine and periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Technical magazine and periodical publishers and printing combined 511120 Television guide publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Television guide publishers and printing combined 511120 Trade journal publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Trade journal publishers and printing combined 511120 Trade magazine and periodical publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511120 Trade magazine and periodical publishers and printing combined 511130 Almanac publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Almanac publishers and printing combined 511130 Atlas publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Atlas publishers and printing combined 511130 Book (e.g., hardback, paperback, audio) publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Book publishers and printing combined 511130 Book publishers, university press (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Dictionary publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Dictionary publishers and printing combined 511130 Encyclopedia publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Encyclopedia publishers and printing combined 511130 Fiction book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Fiction book publishers and printing combined 511130 Globe cover publishers 511130 Globe cover publishers and printing combined 511130 Guide, street map, publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Guide, street map, publishers and printing combined 511130 Map publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Map publishers and printing combined 511130 Nonfiction book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Nonfiction book publishers and printing combined 511130 Pamphlet publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Pamphlet publishers and printing combined 511130 Professional book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Professional book publishers and printing combined 511130 Publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing), book 511130 Publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing), map 511130 Publishers, book, combined with printing 511130 Religious book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Religious book publishers and printing combined 511130 School book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 School book publishers and printing combined 511130 School textbook publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 School textbook publishers and printing combined 511130 Street map guide publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Technical manual and paperback book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Technical manual and paperback book publishers and printing combined 511130 Technical manual publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Travel guide book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511130 Travel guide book publishers and printing combined 511130 University press publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511140 Address list publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511140 Address list publishers and printing combined 511140 Business directory publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511140 Business directory publishers and printing combined 511140 Catalog of collections publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511140 Catalog of collections publishers and printing combined 511140 Directory and mailing list publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511140 Directory and mailing list publishers and printing combined 511140 Directory publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511140 Directory publishers and printing combined 511140 Electronic directory publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511140 Mailing list publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511140 Publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing), directory 511140 Telephone directory publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511140 Telephone directory publishers and printing combined 511191 Greeting card publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511191 Greeting card publishers and printing combined 511191 Publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing), greeting card 511191 Publishers, greeting card, combined with printing 511199 Art print (except exclusive Internet publishing) publishers 511199 Art print publishers and printing combined 511199 Art publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Calendar publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Calendar publishers and printing combined 511199 Catalog (i.e., mail-order, store merchandise) publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Catalog (i.e., mail-order, store merchandise) publishers and printing combined 511199 Children’s coloring book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Diary and time scheduler publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Discount coupon book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Discount coupon book publishers and printing combined 511199 Limited editions art print publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Pattern and plan (e.g., clothing patterns) publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Pattern and plan (e.g., clothing patterns) publishers and printing combined 511199 Postcard publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Postcard publishers and printing combined 511199 Poster publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Poster publishers and printing combined 511199 Publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing), racing form 511199 Racetrack program publishers (except Internet) 511199 Racetrack program publishers and printing combined 511199 Racing form publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Racing form publishers and printing combined 511199 Yearbook (e.g., high school, college, university) publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing) 511199 Yearbook (e.g., high school, college, university) publishers and printing combined 511210 Applications development and publishing, except on a custom basis 511210 Applications software, computer, packaged 511210 Computer software publishers, packaged 511210 Computer software publishing and reproduction 511210 Games, computer software, publishing 511210 Operating systems software, computer, packaged 511210 Packaged computer software publishers 511210 Programming language and compiler software publishers, packaged 511210 Publishers, packaged computer software 511210 Software computer, packaged, publishers 511210 Software publishers 511210 Software publishers, packaged 511210 Utility software, computer, packaged 512110 Animated cartoon production 512110 Animated cartoon production and distribution 512110 Commercials, television, production 512110 Film studios producing films 512110 Films, motion picture production 512110 Films, motion picture production and distribution 512110 Instructional video production 512110 Motion picture and video production 512110 Motion picture and video production and distribution 512110 Motion picture production 512110 Motion picture production and distribution 512110 Motion picture studios, producing motion pictures 512110 Movie production and distribution 512110 Music video production 512110 Music video production and distribution 512110 Program producing, television 512110 Television commercial production 512110 Television show production 512110 Video production 512110 Video production and distribution 512120 Animated cartoon distribution 512120 Film distribution agencies 512120 Film distribution, motion picture and video 512120 Film libraries, commercial distribution 512120 Motion picture distribution exclusive of production 512120 Motion picture film distributors 512120 Motion picture film libraries 512120 Tape distribution for television 512120 Television show syndicators 512131 Cinemas 512131 Film festivals exhibitors 512131 Motion picture exhibition 512131 Motion picture exhibitors for airlines 512131 Motion picture exhibitors, itinerant 512131 Motion picture theaters, indoor 512131 Movie theaters (except drive-in) 512131 Theaters, motion picture (except drive-in) 512131 Theaters, motion picture, indoor 512132 Drive-in motion picture theaters 512132 Motion picture theaters, drive-in 512132 Movie theaters, drive-in 512132 Open air motion picture theaters 512132 Theaters, motion picture, drive-in 512132 Theaters, outdoor motion picture 512191 Closed captioning services, taped material 512191 Film or tape closed captioning 512191 Film or video transfer services 512191 Motion picture animation, postproduction 512191 Motion picture or video editing services 512191 Motion picture or video postproduction services 512191 Motion picture or video titling 512191 Motion picture production special effects, postproduction 512191 Postproduction facilities, motion picture or video 512191 Post-synchronization sound dubbing 512191 Sound dubbing services, motion picture 512191 Special effects for motion picture production, postproduction 512191 Subtitling of motion picture film or video 512191 Tape transfer service 512191 Teleproduction services 512191 Titling of motion picture film or video 512191 Video conversion services (i.e., between formats) 512191 Video postproduction services 512199 Booking agencies, motion picture 512199 Booking agencies, motion picture or video productions 512199 Film libraries, motion picture or video, stock footage 512199 Film processing laboratories, motion picture 512199 Film restoration services 512199 Laboratory services, motion picture 512199 Libraries, motion picture stock footage film 512199 Libraries, video tape, stock footage 512199 Motion picture booking agencies 512199 Motion picture film laboratories 512199 Motion picture film libraries, stock footage 512199 Motion picture film reproduction for theatrical distribution 512199 Motion picture laboratories 512199 Reproduction of motion picture films for theatrical distribution 512199 Stock footage film libraries 512199 Video tape libraries, stock footage 512230 Music book (i.e., bound sheet music) publishers 512230 Music book (i.e., bound sheet music) publishers and printing combined 512230 Music copyright authorizing use 512230 Music copyright buying and licensing 512230 Music publishers 512230 Music, sheet, publishers and printing combined 512230 Publishers, music 512230 Sheet music publishers 512230 Sheet music publishers and printing combined 512230 Song publishers 512230 Song publishers and printing combined 512240 Audio recording postproduction services 512240 Audio recording restoration services 512240 Recording studios, sound, operating on a contract or fee basis 512240 Sound recording studios (except integrated record companies) 512250 Integrated record companies (i.e., releasing, promoting, distributing) 512250 Integrated record production and distribution 512250 Master recording leasing and licensing 512250 Musical recording, releasing, promoting, and distributing 512250 Prerecorded audio tapes and compact discs integrated manufacture, release, and distribution 512250 Record producers (except independent) 512250 Record production (except independent record producers) without duplication or distribution 512250 Record releasing, promoting, and distributing combined with mass duplication 512250 Sound recording, integrated production, reproduction, release, and distribution 512250 Sound recording, releasing, promoting, and distributing 512290 Audio recording of meetings or conferences 512290 Music program distribution, prerecorded 512290 Producers, recorded radio shows (except independent producers) 512290 Radio program recording production (except independent producers) 512290 Recording books on tape or disc (except publishers) 512290 Recording seminars and conferences, audio 512290 Stock music and other audio services 512290 Stock sound library (e.g., general background sounds, stock music) 515111 Broadcasting networks, radio 515111 Network broadcasting service, radio 515111 Network radio broadcasting 515111 Radio broadcasting network services 515111 Radio broadcasting networks 515111 Radio broadcasting syndicates 515111 Satellite radio networks 515112 Advertising sales offices of independent and public radio broadcast stations 515112 AM radio stations 515112 Broadcasting stations (except exclusively on Internet), radio 515112 Broadcasting studio, radio station 515112 FM radio stations 515112 Music program distribution (except exclusively on Internet), radio 515112 Piped-in music services, radio transmitted 515112 Radio broadcasting (except exclusively on Internet) stations (e.g., AM, FM, shortwave) 515112 Radio stations (except exclusively on Internet) 515112 Rebroadcast radio stations (except exclusively on Internet) 515120 Broadcasting networks, television 515120 Broadcasting stations, television 515120 Network television broadcasting 515120 Television broadcasting networks 515120 Television broadcasting stations 515210 Cable broadcasting networks 515210 Cable television networks 515210 Networks, cable television 515210 Pay television networks 515210 Pay-per-view cable programming 515210 Satellite television networks 515210 Specialty television (e.g., music, sports, news) cable networks 515210 Subscription television networks 515210 Television subscription services 517311 Cable program distribution operators 517311 Cable television distribution services 517311 Cable TV providers (except networks) 517311 Closed-circuit television (CCTV) services 517311 Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) services 517311 Direct-to-home satellite system (DTH) services 517311 Internet service providers, using own operated wired telecommunications infrastructure (e.g., cable, DSL) 517311 Local telephone carriers, wired 517311 Long-distance telephone carriers, wired 517311 Multichannel multipoint distribution services (MMDS) 517311 Music program distribution, cable or satellite 517311 On-line access service providers, using own operated wired telecommunications infrastructure 517311 Satellite master antenna television service (SMATV) 517311 Satellite television distribution systems 517311 Telecommunications carriers, wired 517311 Television operations, closed-circuit 517311 VoIP service providers, using own operated wired telecommunications infrastructure 517312 Beeper (i.e., radio pager) communication carriers 517312 Cellular telephone communication carriers 517312 Cellular telephone services 517312 Cellular telephone stores, primarily selling cellular phone service plans 517312 Mobile phone stores, primarily selling mobile phone service plans 517312 Mobile telephone communication carriers (except satellite) 517312 Paging services (except satellite) 517312 Radio paging services communications carriers 517312 Ship-to-shore broadcasting communication carriers (except satellite) 517312 Telecommunications carriers, cellular telephone 517312 Telephone communications carriers, wireless (except satellite) 517312 Two-way paging communication carriers (except satellite) 517312 Wireless data communication carriers (except satellite) 517312 Wireless Internet service providers (except satellite) 517312 Wireless phone stores, primarily selling wireless phone service plans 517312 Wireless telephone communications carriers (except satellite) 517312 Wireless video services (except satellite) 517410 Earth stations for satellite communication carriers 517410 Long-distance telephone satellite communication carriers 517410 Resellers, satellite telecommunication 517410 Satellite telecommunication carriers 517410 Satellite telecommunication resellers 517410 Telephone communications carriers, satellite 517911 Long-distance telecommunication resellers (except satellite) 517911 Microwave telecommunication resellers 517911 Pre-paid calling cards, telecommunications resellers 517911 Resellers, telecommunication (except satellite) 517911 Telecommunications resellers 517911 Telephone communications resellers (except satellite) 517911 Wired telecommunication resellers 517911 Wireless telecommunication resellers (except satellite) 517919 Dial-up Internet service providers, using client-supplied telecommunications connections 517919 Earth stations (except satellite telecommunication carriers) 517919 Internet service providers, using client-supplied telecommunications (e.g., dial-up ISPs) 517919 On-line access service providers, using client-supplied telecommunications (e.g., dial-up ISPs) 517919 Radar station operations 517919 Satellite telemetry operations on a contract or fee basis 517919 Satellite tracking stations 517919 Telemetry and tracking system operations on a contract or fee basis 517919 VoIP service providers, using client-supplied telecommunications connections 518210 Application hosting 518210 Automated data processing services 518210 Computer data storage services 518210 Computer input preparation services 518210 Computer time leasing 518210 Computer time rental 518210 Computer time sharing services 518210 Data capture imaging services 518210 Data entry services 518210 Data processing computer services 518210 Data processing services (except payroll services, financial transaction processing services) 518210 Disk and diskette conversion services 518210 Disk and diskette recertification services 518210 Electronic data processing services 518210 Media streaming services 518210 Microfiche recording and imaging services 518210 Microfilm recording and imaging services 518210 Optical scanning services 518210 Scanning services, optical 518210 Video and audio streaming services 518210 Web hosting 519110 Feature syndicates (i.e., advice columns, comic, news) 519110 News picture gathering and distributing services 519110 News reporting services 519110 News service syndicates 519110 News ticker services 519110 Newspaper feature syndicates 519110 Syndicates, news 519110 Traffic reporting services 519110 Wire photo services 519110 Wire services, news 519120 Archives 519120 Bookmobiles 519120 Centers for documentation (i.e., archives) 519120 Circulating libraries 519120 Film archives 519120 Lending libraries 519120 Libraries (except motion picture stock footage, motion picture commercial distribution) 519120 Motion picture film libraries, archives 519120 Music archives 519120 Reference libraries 519130 Advertising periodical publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Agricultural magazine and periodical publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Almanac publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Art publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Atlas publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Book publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Broadcasting exclusively on Internet, audio 519130 Broadcasting exclusively on Internet, video 519130 Business directory publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Calendar publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Catalog of collections publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Children’s coloring book publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Comic book publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Diary and time scheduler publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Dictionary publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Directory publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Discount coupon book publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Electronic directory publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Encyclopedia publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Entertainment sites, Internet 519130 Fiction book publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Financial magazine and periodical publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Greeting card publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Guide, street map, publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Internet book publishers 519130 Internet broadcasting 519130 Internet comic book publishing 519130 Internet entertainment sites 519130 Internet magazine publishing 519130 Internet news publishers 519130 Internet newsletter publishing 519130 Internet newspaper publishing 519130 Internet periodical publishers 519130 Internet radio stations 519130 Internet search portals 519130 Internet search Web sites 519130 Internet sports sites 519130 Internet video broadcast sites 519130 Juvenile magazine and periodical publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Magazine publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Map publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Medical journal and periodical publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Newsletter publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Newspaper publishing, exclusively on Internet 519130 Nonfiction book publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Pamphlet publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Pattern and plan (e.g., clothing patterns) publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Periodical publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Portals, web search 519130 Postcard publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Poster publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Professional book publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Professional magazine and periodical publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Publishers, Internet greeting card 519130 Publishers, Internet map 519130 Publishers, Internet racing form 519130 Racetrack program publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Racing form publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Radio guide publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Radio schedule publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Religious book publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Religious magazine and periodical publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Scholarly journal publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Scholastic magazine and periodical publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 School book publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 School textbook publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Scientific journal and periodical publishers, exclusively on Internet 519130 Search portals, Internet 519130 Social networking sites, Internet 519130 Special interest portals (e.g., parents sharing information about child rearing, etc. Finally starch separation during corn wet-milling shares many of the equipment was heavily damaged: barrier guards two-hand! Controls must be carefully addressed, because flammable vapors will form above all areas where flammability and/or explosion hazards.! Live fire and the process, reducing operating costs includes various requirements to ensure you to... Especially during periods of increased risk, including painting and decorating ( CFR... Drier ( oftentimes fed by recycled process air ) to minimize dust generation Figure II.13 ) is typically to! Of guard rails and covers removed through a destoner processes likely to be performed in the confined atmosphere... Safety requirements for powered industrial corn brooms made by the blind, including PSM requirements for containers and portable powered and... Pretreatment processes for biochemical conversion refers to the contractor 's work and cold... Typically 8 to 14 times in water, char, and residual lignin 75 feet States Safety... 2009, volume 74, number 202 bucket elevator lifts the shelled.. 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