The patient is followed regularly to make sure that ROM, The patient should be actively involved in the. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation in osteochondral lesions of the ankle joint. Although OCD of the talus is, by definition, detachment of an osteochondral fragment of the talar dome occurring in a growing patient, symptomatic OCD is more typically observed in adults. OCD of the talus usually occurs in patients aged between 10 and 40 years, and it peaks in the second decade of life. Talar hemiarthroplasty Using a metallic prosthesis for OCL of the talus was first described in 2010 for a defect of the medial talar dome in a cadaver [37]. Metal artifact can make MRI difficult to interpret in certain cases. Other surgical options: Concurrent chronic ankle instability should be addressed with ligament reconstruction. Santrock RD, Buchanan MM, Lee TH, et al. Traumatic chondral defects, on the other hand, are often related to shear. Cannot evaluate subchondral abnormalities. The lateral injuries to the Talus (ankle bone) are usually shallow and cup shaped. Die OCD kann die meisten Gelenke des men… [] Although majority may be associated with trauma, some may develop insidiously. Cyst may develop under fragment . Ankle ROM exercises, peroneal strengthening, progressive ambulation, and proprioception training. The average age at surgery was 22.7 years (range, 19-34). Brostrum), medial malleolar osteotomy for medial and posterior lesions, longitudinal incision centered over medial malleolus, flexor retinaculum released posteriorly; PTT retracted posteriorly, osteotomy guided based of 2 parallelly placed K-wires, with goal to enter plafond at lateral extent of OLT, prior to osteotomy, 2 drill holes placed to aid in reduction following procedure, sagittal saw and osteotome used to complete osteotomy, care taken not to cause thermal necrosis to bone or damage cartilage, lateral malleolar osteotomy or ATFL/CFL release for lateral lesions, longitudinal incision centered over lateral malleolus, oblique osteotomy planned, with predrilling of small fragment screws holes to aid in reduction following procedure, alternatively, if lateral ligament reconstruction is planned, extensor retinaculum may be released, peroneal tendons retracted posteriorly and ATFL and CFL released, ankle inverted and plantarflexed to expose talar dome, OLT debrided and measured using sizing guide, appropriately sized autograft may be harvested from knee and placed into OLT, impacted gently into defect, OATs harvested from the knee have a cartilage thickness less than the native talus, this will cause immediate post-operative xrays to show a prominent graft despite the cartilage surface being flush, do not release deltoid ligament as may jeopardize deltoid artery blood supply, ankle impingement if graft plug left proud, small percentage of patients do not achieve pain relief regardless of treatment, Posterior Tibial Tendon Insufficiency (PTTI), lesions may progress to involve entire ankle joint, mechanical symptoms such as catching or locking, arthroscopic harvest of chondrocytes (from ankle or alternatively from knee) are sent for cultured growth, open approach via osteotomy for implantation, debridement of lesion to create stable cartilage rim, subchondral bone exposed, bone graft may be placed if underlying cyst and bone loss, periosteum from tibia taken and fitted to defect, this is sutured into place this small caliber suture, omitting one area to leave access to underlying defect, water-tight seal confirmed, cultured chondrocytes placed under flap and suture placed, fibrin glue placed over defect, newer technique of matrix-based chondrocyte implantation (MACI) shown equivalent outcomes to ACI and may obviate need for osteotomy. Die Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD, auch angloamerikanisch Osteochondritis dissecans) ist die umschriebene aseptische Knochennekrose unterhalb des Gelenkknorpels, die mit der Abstoßung des betroffenen Knochenareals mit dem darüberliegenden Knorpel als freier Gelenkkörper enden kann. It can occur in all age groups. Limited by the amount of donor tissue that can be harvested, Osteochondral tissue harvested from fresh allograft talus and transplanted into the defect. Examine for crepitus or mechanical signs with ankle ROM. Die genauen Ursachen, die zu dieser Erkrankung führen, sind noch nicht vollends verstanden, allerdings scheinen sich wiederholende Traumen oder Überbelastung sowie Durchblutungsstörungen am Knochen eine Rolle zu spielen. Osteochondral lesions of the talus are commonly associated with a traumatic injury to the ankle joint. • Cartilage injury with underlying fracture and surrounding bony edema, • Stage 2a without surrounding bone edema, often limited secondary to pain or effusion, evaluate for ligamentous laxity or insufficiency, suspicion for OLT in setting of equivocal radiographs, helpful in evaluating subchondral bone and cysts, less reliable in purely cartilaginous lesions of nondisplaced OLTs, provides fine detail of lesions for pre-operative planning, persistent pain following injury, ankle sprains that do not heal with time, variable edema patterns, may overestimate degree of injury, unstable lesions show fluid deep to subchondral bone, predicts stability of lesion with 92% sensitivity, nondisplaced fragment with incomplete fracture, size > 1 cm and displaced lesions, shoulder lesions, salvage for failed marrow stimulation or drilling, period of immobilization in cast or boot for 6 weeks, followed by progressive weight bearing with physical therapy emphasizing peroneal strengthening, range of motion, and proprioceptive training, Arthroscopy with marrow stimulation (microfracture or antegrade drilling), debridement of unstable cartilage flaps to create stable and contained defect using curettes or shaver, loose bodies and cartilage removed using shaver or grasper, microfracture awl placed perpendicular to surface and tapped into subchondral bone 2-4 mm deep, inflow stopped to allow fat or blood to emanate from holes, indicating adequate penetration, Kirschner wire can be passed using anterior portals, or transmalleolar for central or posterior lesions, talus dorsiflexed and plantar flex to necessitate only 1 transosseous passing of wire, articular cartilage delamination and graft failure, 65-90% improvement in patient reported outcomes, fibrocartilage formation at site of lesion in 60% of patients on second-look arthroscopy, no correlation noted with patient outcomes, Arthroscopy with retrograde drilling and bone grafting, evaluate cartilaginous surface for softening, dimpling with probe seen, Kirschner wire drilled from sinus tarsi into defect, fluoroscopy often helpful to confirm location, if bone grafting indicated, cannulated drill placed over K wire, Osteochondral autograft and allograft transplant, dictated by location of OLT and concomitant procedures required (i.e. That causes pain and stiffness of the talus is the 3rd most common (... 17–66 % of ankles with lateral ligament injuries [ 3, 12, 21 26. 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