[27]. 5.1.2 Inorganic flocculants The flocculation process is also affected by pH, salts, alkalinity, turbidity, temperature and degree of mixing. rapid sand filtration) to enhance the ability of a treatment process to remove particles. Many water treatment plants use a combination of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection to provide clean, safe drinking water to the public. After a series of hydrolysis, polymerization and ferrous oxidation processes, it develops into various hydroxyl groups. The coagulation-flocculation processes facilitate the removal of SS and colloidal particles. [68]. A Flocculation Test Procedure is used to determine how much Flocculants need be added to solids in suspension (slurry or pulp) to cause the individual particles to collect in the form of flocs. Through extensive jar testing an optimal time can be found. Worldwide, a combination of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration is the most widely … Review the documents for the Research phase of the FRAME engineering design model. flocculation and sedimentation to remove the colloidal particles in the water. Principle of bridging flocculation and protective effect of macromolecule. Common designs based on the flocculation principle are the horizontal reel and another one is the turbine mixer . The formation of flocs aids in improved settling rates, better overhead clarity and/or faster filtration rates. (a) Flocculation and (b) protection. Coagulation is the destabilization of colloidal particles brought about by the addition of a chemical reagent called as coagulant. The reaction principle of electro-flocculation is to use metals such as aluminum and iron as anodes. 8. For flocculation, the mixing usually occurs in gently stirred compartments. The amount of chemical you use is an important consideration for a green engineer. Flocculation mechanism: • Flocculants, with their very high molecular weights (long monomer chain ) and their charge content, fix the destabilized particles and aggregates along the polymer chain. Flocculation mechanism: • Principle: • Removal of Hydrophobic Colloids from the Aqueous Phase. Coagulation is a process used to neutralise charges and form a gelatinous mass to trap (or bridge) particles thus forming a mass large enough to settle or be trapped in the filter. Now that you have completed this portion of the research phase, it is time to The flocculation efficiency of cationic polymers such as chitosan is highly dependent on pH with a pH of 7 being optimal for flocculation in low salinity media [67]. Other articles where Flocculation test is discussed: serological test: …types of serological tests—for example, flocculation tests, neutralization tests, hemagglutinin-inhibition tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and chemiluminescence immunoassays. 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